Homo habilis Contemporary with Homo erectus

first_imgHomo habilis couldn’t have been the ancestor of Homo erectus, because they lived side by side.  This has been all over the news since it was announced in Nature yesterday: see the Times UK, PhysOrg, the BBC News, Reuters Africa, National Geographic, and MSNBC News, which says the new discovery paints a “messy” view of human origins: “Surprising fossils dug up in Africa are creating messy kinks in the iconic straight line of human evolution with its knuckle-dragging ape and briefcase-carrying man.”    OK, what happened?  Meave Leakey found a small female Homo erectus skull in Kenya that dates from the same period as Homo habilis, or “handy man,” long thought to have been a predecessor:In 2000 Leakey found an old H. erectus complete skull within walking distance of an upper jaw of the H. habilis, and both dated from the same general time period.  That makes it unlikely that H. erectus evolved from H. habilis, researchers said.    It’s the equivalent of finding that your grandmother and great-grandmother were sisters rather than mother-daughter, said study co-author Fred Spoor, a professor of evolutionary anatomy at the University College in London….Overall what it paints for human evolution is a “chaotic kind of looking evolutionary tree rather than this heroic march that you see with the cartoons of an early ancestor evolving into some intermediate and eventually unto us,” Spoor said in a phone interview from a field office of the Koobi Fora Research Project in northern Kenya.    But this should not cast evolutionary science into doubt, the article A.P. article was quick to point out: “All the changes to human evolutionary thought should not be considered a weakness in the theory of evolution, [Bill] Kimbel [Arizona State] said.  Rather, those are the predictable results of getting more evidence, asking smarter questions and forming better theories, he said.”    Yet it is hard to see how this helps the evolutionary story of progress between apes and humans.  This upset is similar, Kimbel said, to the revised story of Neanderthals, which also used to be considered human ancestors.  This effectively removes Homo habilis from consideration as an ancestor, leaving a gap where paleoanthropologists thought they had a link.  National Geographic speculated that the two hominid forms might have originated “two and three million years ago, which is a well-known gap in the fossil record.  The evidence for human evolution, therefore, has been reduced, not just messed up.    Although the skull was found in 2000, it often takes years for a research team to clean, date, and document the find.  Another claim from the announcement is that apparently males were larger than females (sexual dimorphism), but see commentary and picture from the 08/02/2007 entry about the flaw of drawing conclusions from limited samples.  Leakey and team believe the two forms lived contemporaneously and in proximity, as do chimpanzees and gorillas, for half a million years.    Ann Gibbons wrote in Science2 the next day about this find.  She noted that the blurring of distinctions between H. habilis and H. erectus makes ripples with another famous fossil, too: Homo ergaster:The skull also shows features that had previously been seen only in Asian fossils of H. erectus, such as a keeling (or ridge) on its frontal and parietal bones.  These traits had persuaded a growing number of researchers in recent years to split the fossils of H. erectus into two species, with H. erectus from Asia and H. ergaster from Africa.  But the skull’s mix of traits shows H. erectus cannot be “easily divided between two species from Africa and Asia,” says Spoor.  Kimbel and Arizona State graduate student Claire Terhune reached a similar conclusion after studying the temporal bones of 15 H. erectus skulls, in a paper published in the July issue of the Journal of Human Evolution.    Others who have championed H. ergaster are taking note.  “The new cranium blurs the distinction between H. erectus and H. ergaster,” says Wood.  “I am not willing to sell my shares in H. ergaster just yet, but I am not relying on them for my retirement!”1Leakey et al, “Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya,” Nature 448, 688-691 (9 August 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature05986.2Ann Gibbons, “New Fossils Challenge Line of Descent in Human Family Tree,” Science, 10 August 2007: Vol. 317. no. 5839, p. 733, DOI: 10.1126/science.317.5839.733.These people do not know who begat whom, and they can’t tell dates with any credibility; they keep losing links into gaps and moving things around, yet they expect us to believe they are the Masters of Enlightenment when telling us where we came from.    It’s important to remember that the bones aren’t talking.  Data don’t just jump up into a scientist’s hands and explain themselves.  Instead, picture a group of scientists at a large, blank game board, with a few fossils as game pieces, but no instructions.  They approach the game with a mental picture of how the game should be played and where the pieces go, but they are free to move them around.  Depending on how committed they are to their mental picture, they can compromise here or there and keep the picture intact.  The compromises make the game confusing and even chaotic at times.  Still, the commitment to the mental picture is paramount: it was carefully selected to conform to the Official Myth of the Culture.    We spectators might look with bewilderment at how they can keep playing such a confusing game, but, as outsiders, we are not permitted by the ruling elite to have an opinion, or to holler in suggestions to them.  They are all sworn to keep a straight face and maintain the appearance that everything is under control and that progress is being made.    Appearances are not realities, however.  If the mental picture is incorrect, the chaos is real.  Don’t be distracted by the elaborate canopy the game players have erected over their board, and all the concession stands, reporters and public announcements that “they’re getting warmer” and the latest find “sheds new light on evolution.”  It’s all just a sport with no necessary connection to reality.    The picture on the game board could be totally different, with a much better fit of the pieces.  No matter; if such a picture has been disqualified by an arbitrary consensus of the players, it will never be found, but the players will get to keep their jobs.  After all, a complex game with lots of twists and turns is more fun than a linear one.  And horrors, being told what the picture was supposed to be would spoil the party.(Visited 63 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Hobbits Were Brain Diseased Modern Humans

first_imgThe discovery of fossils of miniature humans in Indonesia, designated Homo floresiensis but nicknamed Hobbits, was one of the most exciting and controversial announcements of 2004.  Since then, interpretations of the fossils have fallen into two camps: those who think the skeletons represent normal humans with the brain-defective disease microcephaly (10/11/2006), and those who think they represent evolutionary missing links (10/25/2005).  A new paper compared skulls of H. floresiensis with those of modern humans, Homo erectus, and humans with microcephaly.  The result favors the interpretation that the Hobbits most likely were diseased modern humans. The paper was published in PNAS today.1  Using MRI, a team of three anthropologists from New York University and Columbia University measured craniometric ratios for 21 age-corrected skulls infants with microcephaly, with 118 normal skulls for control.  In addition, they measured skull bones of 10 microcephalic individuals, 79 anatomically modern humans, and 17 Homo erectus specimens.  These were compared with two skulls of the so-called Hobbits from Ling Bua cave 1 (LB1).  The results put pressure on those who maintain that the Hobbits represent an evolutionary transitional form prior to the emergence of modern humans: The findings showed that the calculated cerebral/cerebellar ratios of the LB1 endocast [Falk D, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:2513–2518] fall outside the range of living normocephalic individuals. The ratios derived from two LB1 endocasts also fall largely outside the range of modern normal human and H. erectus endocasts and within the range of microcephalic endocasts. The findings support but do not prove the contention that LB1 represents a pathological microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species, (i.e., H. floresiensis). In another paleoanthropology article on PhysOrg, we learn that diet can play a big part in the shape of human fossils.  Researchers at Johns Hopkins found that “use over time and not just genetics informs the structure of jaw bones in human populations.”  It’s all about engineering: “The changes to the jaw bones were explained using a theory drawn from engineering, which directly relates the geometry of a bone to the stresses put on it during use.”  While this announcement offers hope for inferring the diet of ancient people, it also casts doubt on phylogenetic interpretations.  “Mechanical pressure from muscle stress and strain from day-to-day activities can remodel the bone’s surface and internal structure,” said JHU anthropologist Megan Holmes.  “Knowing how much the shape of a mandible we find is related to diet and how much genetically connects it to fossils found elsewhere can really help us parse out the family tree” – provided information on probable diet is available, it would seem. So can scientists conclude that “Big brains evolved due to the capacity for exercise?” as another article on PhysOrg suggested?  While the researchers did compare a lot of mammal skulls, it’s not clear that the evolutionary trend they suggested worked on wildebeests and Arctic terns.  Besides, maybe quality counts more than quantity (03/04/2005, 02/07/2010).  Today’s hand-held devices pack more power than the first PCs.  The article indicated that they have more work ahead to test their idea, but maybe not too much can be interpreted about the Hobbits without being able to test their IQ. For earlier articles on Homo floresiensis, see 10/27/2004 for the original entry and search on “Hobbit” in the search bar for over a dozen more. 1. Vannucci, Barron, and Holloway, “Craniometric ratios of microcephaly and LB1, Homo floresiensis, using MRI and endocasts,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online before print August 8, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1105585108 PNAS August 8, 2011. Don’t you just love scientific jargon?  Microcephaly means “small head.”  The word conveys no understanding whether in Latin or English; it is purely descriptive.  A farmer went to his doctor complaining that his butt itched.  The doctor got out his diagnostic manual, and announced to the patient that he had a case of rectal pruritus.  “What the heck is that?” the farmer asked.  “Itchy butt,” the doctor replied, scientifically. Here’s a plausible scenario for the Hobbit skulls in the cave.  A few thousand years ago, a tribe of human pygmies (03/11/2008), small yet perfectly modern sons of Adam and daughters of Eve, had an epidemic of microcephaly among their members.  Worried they had displeased God, they buried the affected in a special cave, praying for mercy and dedicating the cave to their memory.  In 2004, evolutionists found these skeletons and shouted, “Missing links!”(Visited 44 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Adobe Releases CS2 for FREE (Updated)

first_imgAcrobat 3DAcrobat Standard 7.0Acrobat Pro 8.0Audition 3.0GoLiveIllustratorInCopyInDesignPhotoshopPhotoshop ElementsAdobe Premiere ProNote: If you have a newer computer/operating system you may have a bit of trouble running this version.  Lifehacker points out this forum for tips on getting it working on Windows 8 and new Mac systems.You will have to signup for an Adobe account to download (if you don’t already have one) but signup is free.  A great deal on a powerful software package for graphic designers, video editors and creative content creators!via 9to5 Toys, Lifehacker and FStoppers Adobe is giving away the CS2 version of their powerful suite of video, photo and design apps.UPDATE from Kevin Monahan, Sr. Content and Community Lead for Adobe After Effects and Premiere Pro:“Effective December 13, Adobe disabled the activation server for CS2 products and Acrobat 7 because of a technical glitch. These products were released over 7 years ago and do not run on many modern operating systems. But to ensure that any customers activating those old versions can continue to use their software, we issued a serial number directly to those customers. While this might be interpreted as Adobe giving away software for free, we did it to help our customers.”  Thanks for letting us know, Kevin!Mac and PC users rejoice, Adobe has recently offered up a FREE download of their professional Creative Suite 2.  Although CS2 was intially released in 2005, many of the apps still have the same powerful features as their newer successors.  Included in this suite is:last_img read more

Gehlot seeks Governor’s resignation

first_imgRajasthan Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot on Saturday condemned political developments in Maharashtra and demanded the resignation of Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari on “moral grounds”, asserting that he acted in connivance with the BJP to make Devendra Fadnavis the Chief Minister. “The details emerging from Maharashtra are shocking and show that the governor acted in connivance with the BJP and administered the oath of office to Devendra Fadnavis without verifying signatures of NCP MLAs,” Mr. Gehlot said. “The governor must resign on moral grounds. He has no right to remain in office,” he added, while questioning the revocation of President’s Rule in Maharashtra. Mr. Gehlot said if the governor was convinced that there were sufficient number of MLAs for government formation, the swearing-in ceremony could have been held during the day. The Chief Minister also sought the intervention of President Ram Nath Kovind as the President’s Rule in the State was revoked under his stamp. “This was done hurriedly. The President will have to tell this because he acts as per the recommendation of the Cabinet. Why the decision was taken at night. I think the President would like to know why this was done at night,” he said. Attacking the BJP, Mr. Gehlot further said, “The way the NDA government, especially the BJP, played the game in the night is highly condemnable. What was the need to do this in such a hidden manner? Why [PM] Modi and Amit Shah were so worried that they took this decision in the night.” Mr. Gehlot also accused the BJP of setting a wrong precedence.“The BJP is setting wrong precedents in the country. The President’s Rule was revoked at 5.47 a.m. What was the need to do that at such odd hours? It should be made clear why this was done in such a hidden manner. The oath was also administered early in the morning whereas this could have done during the day,” Mr. Gehlot said. He said in the Assembly elections of Maharashtra and Haryana, people had given the message that they wanted, but the BJP had not understood this. He demanded the Centre and the BJP leadership to come clean on the issue. He also said both Chief Minister and Deputy Chief Minister were “guilt conscious” and raised doubt whether the government would be able to deliver good governance. Only people of Maharashtra would suffer, said Mr. Gehlot, adding, “People will teach a lesson to the BJP at an appropriate time.” “The democracy in the country is in danger and people should understand this,” he asserted. When asked whether Congress MLAs from Maharashtra would again be brought to Jaipur, the Chief Minister said they were welcome.“It is our government here, so it is our duty to protect them be it Congress legislators or of the other party,” he added.last_img read more

Mayweather, McGregor trade verbal jabs as countdown begins

first_imgLacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ McGregor and Mayweather passed each other after their separate introductions, with McGregor taunting the American with a shout of “Why didn’t you want to face off?” — triggering a melee between their two entourages.‘Intriguing fight’ A relaxed-looking Mayweather, meanwhile,  had earlier encouraged fans to bet on the fight finishing inside 12 rounds.“I talked to you before and said that this fight wouldn’t go the distance,” Mayweather said.“If you’re going to bet, bet it won’t go (the distance).”Mayweather did his best to play down his status as a heavy favorite, insisting that his two-year layoff from the ring had blunted his prowess.“That’s what makes this fight so intriguing, I’ve been out a few years, feel like I’ve lost a few steps,” Mayweather said.“So we’ll just have to wait and see.”Earlier Tuesday, Mayweather had taunted McGregor over his fitness, telling the US website FightHype that he believed his opponent would struggle to make the 154-pound limit for Saturday’s bout.“Conor McGregor is extremely heavy right now,” Mayweather said. “I think he’s 164 so he’s still got 10 pounds to go.” Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR View comments Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Conor McGregor. AFP/GETTY IMAGES FILE PHOTOFloyd Mayweather and Conor McGregor traded verbal jabs on Tuesday as the circus-like countdown to their money-spinning superfight cranked into overdrive on the Las Vegas Strip.Thousands of fans, including a sizeable contingent of Irish supporters,  thronged the heart of the Nevada boxing capital to greet Mayweather and McGregor at their separate formal grand arrival ceremonies.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Crawford wants winner of Pacquiao-Horn 2 Mayweather, the 40-year-old undefeated former welterweight boxing champion, has been lured out of retirement to face McGregor, a star of mixed martial arts’ Ultimate Fighting Championship.The two men meet in a 12-round contest under boxing rules on Saturday that is tipped to become the richest fight in history.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingThe cross-combat collision has appalled boxing purists, with many decrying the event as a farcical publicity stunt more in keeping with the choreographed traditions of WWE wrestling.Mayweather and McGregor, who clashed repeatedly during an expletive-laden world press tour to drum up interest for the fight last month, insist however that they are ready to deliver a battle for the ages.center_img NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games McGregor could face a painful financial penalty if he is unable to tip the scales inside the limit. Boxers often have the option of cancelling a fight or collecting a larger share of the purse if an opponent fails to make weight.Mayweather, who is expected to earn at least $100 million from Saturday’s contest, indicated he would take the money.“I get that extra money if you can’t make the weight,” Mayweather said. “Get those extra millions ready. UFC get those extra millions ready.”“If he don’t make the weight, we still going to fight but there’s going to be a heavy fine.”Mayweather has fought at 154 pounds before but is more used to fighting at welterweight (150 pounds). McGregor however has fought at 170 pounds in MMA.McGregor, 29, last week insisted he was in peak condition following a gruelling training camp that had taken him to “hell and back” and left him primed to face either a long or short fight.“There is no way in hell that I’m not ready to fight in the deepest of trenches in this contest,” McGregor said.“We are ready for both scenarios. I’m ready to go to war for 12 rounds and I’m ready to put him away early on.” Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo MOST READ McGregor, a massive underdog in what will be his first professional boxing fight, insisted Tuesday he was ready to stun the oddsmakers.“This is not even close to my toughest challenge ever. I will crumble him,” McGregor said.“I have adapted perfectly to boxing, I am very pleased and ready. I’m a special man, I will prove that August 26, this will go one or two rounds, maybe I will bang him out and hurt him.“If he survives, I will decide whether I embarrass or seriously hurt him.“I’m calm and cool, same as I am in every fight. I’m fit, sharp and I’m gonna be ruthless in there. I believe he’ll be unconscious inside one round.”ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Nextlast_img read more

Madrid head to Moscow with fewer stars and bigger plans for future

first_imgMadrid, Oct 1 (AFP) Luka Modric returns to the Luzhniki Stadium on Tuesday, the scene of Croatia’s World Cup final defeat to France, not only as FIFA’s best men’s player but the star of Real Madrid too.For the first time in his six seasons at Madrid, Modric will line up for a Champions League tie without Cristiano Ronaldo, who was sold, or Gareth Bale, who is injured.There will be no Kaka, Angel di Maria or James Rodriguez either, all of whom Modric has rubbed shoulders with. At 33, he has outlasted them all.Together, that quintet cost Madrid almost 400 million euros (USD 464 million), and each considerably more than Modric, whose fee of around 30 million pounds in 2012 would not even have got Richarlison out of Watford last summer.But in this current squad, Modric stands out. In part, because of his brilliance, which has never been in doubt, but also because of Real Madrid too. The Galacticos are, just about, all gone.Bale is the last, and he would have been playing against CSKA Moscow, had it not been for a thigh injury picked up on Saturday.After him, Madrid’s most expensive starters are likely to be Karim Benzema and Toni Kroos — both, like Modric, signed for around 30 million euros.Meanwhile, elsewhere in Europe, Barcelona will be fielding Philippe Coutinho and Ousmane Dembele against Tottenham. Manchester United will have Paul Pogba, and Paris Saint-Germain Neymar and Kylian Mbappe. All of them surpassed the 100-million euro mark.Since being wooed by James’ sumptuous volley at the Maracana in the 2014 World Cup, Madrid have changed their approach.advertisementAs the remnants of the old mode depart — Ronaldo is gone, James unlikely to return — the new, younger and cheaper, batch have risen to the surface.”Madrid is strengthening its search for young players that will become the next great players of the sport,” president Florentino Perez said in July.Alvaro Odriozola, the 22-year-old right back, could make his Champions League debut on Tuesday in the absence of Marcelo and Sergio Ramos. He was signed from Real Sociedad for 35 million euros in the summer.Dani Ceballos, bought as a 20-year-old for 17 million euros from Real Betis, came on for Bale against Atletico Madrid last weekend.And Marco Asensio, perhaps the policy’s poster boy, was brought in for a just under four million euros as an 18-year-old from Real Mallorca.All three of them Spanish, not signed for the present, but the future.The list of those nurtured in the Real Madrid youth teams is longer. On the plane to Moscow on Sunday was Dani Carvajal, Nacho, Lucas Vazquez, Mariano Diaz, Marcos Llorente, Kiko Casilla and Sergio Reguilon, all academy graduates.World Cup winner Raphael Varane came from Lens for 10 million euros as a teenager and it is believed Vinicius, signed for 40 million euros from Flamengo in July, can be the next big talent from Brazil.There is a temptation to recall the days of Zinedine Zidane, Figo, David Beckham, Brazil’s Ronaldo and Kaka, and feel underwhelmed.Madrid have become synonymous with superstar names and this was a World Cup year too.But the shift has been deliberate. The swelling market has played a part, with the club no longer the dominant power-player among Europe’s elite, as have plans to upgrade the Santiago Bernabeu, for which a loan of 575 million euros will be taken out.”The only way to remain independent is to be financially healthy,” Perez said at the club’s annual general meeting earlier this month.”That is the base of our sporting success.” Zidane was an advocate too.His method centred on improving those players he had by blocking out the noise from outside. That translated into faith in humility and hard work, not more big-money signings.”There is often talk of transfers, but I am not that type of coach,” he said in January.Modric, Ramos, Benzema and Bale — all approaching or past 30 — will soon need replacing and few would bet against Perez joining the chase when Mbappe, Neymar or Pogba become available.But for now, this is a different Real Madrid. Modric can enjoy the limelight. (AFP) APAAPAlast_img read more

The Wilmington Insider For May 23 2018

first_imgWILMINGTON, MA — Below is a round-up of what’s going on in Wilmington on Wednesday, May 23, 2018:Happening Today:Weather: Patchy fog before 8am. Otherwise, cloudy through mid morning, then gradual clearing, with a high near 79. Northwest wind 3 to 5 mph.At Wilmington Public Schools: The Annual Spring Chorus Concert takes place at 7pm in the WHS Auditorium.In The Community: The Wilmington Police Department offers safety seat installs at the Wilmington Public Safety Building (1 Adelaide Street) every Wednesday, from 10am to 2pm. No appointment is necessary, but calling ahead at 978-658-5071 is recommended. Learn more HERE.In The Community: The Friends of the Wilmington Memorial Library’s Book Store Next Door (183 Middlesex Avenue) is open from 10am to 4pm. All books are $2 or less!  Every penny of every sale benefits the Wilmington Memorial Library. Learn more HERE.At The Library: Well Read Wednesday Book Group at 10am. Tech Help Drop-In at 2pm. First Look Book Group at 3pm. Music and More at 6:30pm. [Learn more and register HERE.]At The Senior Center: SBF Exercise at 9:45am. Special Exercise at 11am. Country Line Dancing at 1pm. Cards at 1pm. Fun Singers at 3pm. [Learn more HERE.]Go Wildcats!: 9 Wilmington High teams are in action today. See the schedule HERE.(NOTE: What did I miss? Let me know by commenting below, commenting on the Facebook page, or emailing wilmingtonapple@gmail.com. I may be able to update this post.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… Related5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Wednesday, August 21, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Wednesday, August 28, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”5 Things To Do In Wilmington On Wednesday, September 4, 2019In “5 Things To Do Today”last_img read more

Digital Security Act rubberstamped despite controversies

first_imgPhoto: BSSThe ‘Digital Security Bill, 2018’ was passed in parliament on Wednesday although stakeholders expressed serious reservations before its passage about some of its provisions that would limit freedom of the press.The just-enacted law has kept a provision of minimum seven years and maximum 14 years of imprisonment and monetary fine of minimum Tk 2500,000 and maximum Tk 10 million or both for illegal access and destruction of any important information related to the state affairs, reports BSS.The Editors’ Council has earlier rejected the draft law.Post, telecommunication and information technology minister Mostafa Jabbar moved the bill in the House which was unanimously passed by voice votes with speaker Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury in the chair.The minister said, “The punishment will be life-term imprisonment and monetary fine of Taka 5 crore (50 million) if anybody is found involved second time or more in the crime.”He said the government will form a digital security agency and a digital security council. A 13-member digital security council will be formed heading prime minister as its chairman.The other members of the council are minister/state minister or deputy minister of post, telecommunication and information technology, minister/state minister or deputy minister of law, justice and parliamentary affairs ministry, prime minister’s principal secretary, governor of Bangladesh Bank, secretary of post and telecommunication division, secretary of information and communication technology division, secretary of public safety division, foreign secretary, inspector general of police (IGP), BTRC chairman, director general of defense intelligence directorate and director general of the Digital Security Council will act its member secretary.Earlier, the bill was sent to concerned parliamentary standing committee for further scrutiny.Read More:Draconian digital law finalised, press freedom threatenedlast_img read more