Not to confuse our readers, the meaning of our title is that development is less expensive than underdevelopment. In other words, underdevelopment is in fact more costly than development. Take the private sector, for example. Company X earned gross revenues of US$100,000 in the year ending December 31, 2014. This company is owned by Liberians who are not sitting around waiting for government jobs, but have taken the entrepreneurial risk to go into business. Cost of goods sold and services rendered amounted to US$90,000. That means Company X only realized profits of US$10,000 in 2014. Company X is very efficiently run; but one solitary cost item sucks its profit margin dry. Fuel, used to generate electricity. This accounts for US$30,000 of the company’s budget per annum. The country in which it operates does not produce electricity. Home and business owners use what they can afford – anything from candles to diesel. Had affordable electricity been available, Company X projects that it could be doing at least 20% more business, which means hiring more workers (creating more jobs) and widening its profit margins. Multiply that by 10,000 Liberian businesses, and this amounts to tangible economic growth that does not require the manipulation of the numbers. A Liberian banking official recently told the Daily Observer that his bank is presently caught between a rock and a hard place, as are most banks operating in the country. In order to compete in the banking sector, his bank wants to begin offering debit cards. However, the servers that will keep the system operational 24/7 will need to be powered 24/7. In the absence of affordable electricity, that would be a major expenditure that the bank may not be able to afford. In business, the logical thing to do would be to pass the cost on to the customer; but if said cost is too high, customers may opt for a competitor who offers the same service for less. So if Bank X charges customersUS$5 per debit card transaction while Bank Z charges US$4, customers may opt for Bank Z unless Bank X offers other services that offset the cost and appeal to customers, causing them to stay. This banking official said that even foreign based banks operating here in Liberia are feeling the pinch of high energy costs; but for them, high profit margins in other markets absorb the losses incurred in Liberia. Unfortunately for small and medium-sized Liberian businesses, they do not have the luxury of subsidiaries that can absorb losses. As such, SMEs and large corporations alike struggle despite their best efforts to stay afloat.It applies across the board. Bad roads (underdevelopment) make business and private cars much more expensive to maintain and own. Bad roads also make transportation much more difficult, hence expensive. Business owners then have to pass the cost on to customers and the price of food skyrockets. How does this relate to development? If an enabling environment is created to enable businesses to thrive, they will. If, due to the availability of affordable electricity, the cost of doing business is lower, the prices of goods and services, especially essentials such as food and water, will also be lower for consumers, who may then opt buy more. Businesses will themselves be empowered to expand and pay taxes into government coffers. In this way, development (affordable electricity) is less expensive and more profitable than underdevelopment for businesses, consumers and government alike.Underdevelopment becomes even more unprofitable for governments from a legacy standpoint and from a stability standpoint. An administration that leaves a country underdeveloped will be judged very harshly in the annals of history. Every cabinet minister and executive who worked in that administration will be judged accordingly. Stability-wise, it is no secret in underdeveloped nations that when the level of underdevelopment reaches the critical point where it threatens citizen’s ability to feed their families, the perception of corruption takes over and anger sets in. The rest is effectively what we call history.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Shaniya Persaud…SHEA, Rotary Club sponsor US$40,000 tripSeven-year-old Shaniya Atiya Persaud, who is nursing third-degree burns on 97.8 per cent of her body at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation (GPHC), is scheduled to depart Guyana today for treatment in Galveston, Texas.Persaud’s case was presented to Saving Hands Emergency Aid Inc (SHEA), a charity which began work on transporting her to the United States for emergency lifesaving treatment.SHEA has secured treatment for Persaud in the Texas hospital which will be delivered free of charge.However, due to the severity of Persaud’s injuries, the child can only be transported to the hospital via an air ambulance. The air ambulance cost approximately US$40,000.Half of that sum was provided by SHEA while the other half was acquired by the Rotary Club of Georgetown, which received donations from the public.The child’s travel documents, which were burnt in the fire, have since been replaced and as such she will depart Guyana today for the United States.<<
“Wawel”How about some castle caching, with a dash of dragon lore? The traditional geocache “Wawel” (GC2CZCX) can be found in Krakow, Poland. The GPS coordinates deliver geocachers to an impressive architectural complex called “Wawel” on the banks of the Vistula River.Geocachers discover museums, a castle, and a cathedral. The history of the site is thousands of years old. According to the cache page, Neanderthals left their mark in nearby caves. The strategic location continued to play a role throughout European history. Legend even tells of a dragon that once lived in the caves under the limestone hill.The cache owner, toczygroszek, encourages adventurers to explore the history of the site. He writes, “If I wanted to describe all buildings, museums and stories connected with Wawel, I would have to write a book. So the best idea is that you visit this place to see the unique character of Wawel yourself.””Wawel”Wawel DragonThe difficulty two, terrain two geocache has been logged more than 200 times. It’s also accumulated more than a dozen Favorite Points. One geocacher who logged the cache wrote, “Found [the cache] after a brilliant visit to the state apartments and cathedral (and dragons cave). Krakow and its people are a constant delight.”Continue your exploration of some of the most engaging geocaches from around the globe. Explore all the Geocaches of the Week on the Latitude 47 blog or view the Bookmark List on Geocaching.com. If you’ d like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, send an email with your name, comments, the name of the geocache and the GC code to email@example.com. Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedDracula’s Castle – GC5D8 – GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK – November 29, 2012November 28, 2012In “Community”Find your knight in shining armor. — Castle Northmoor (GCX612) — Geocache of the WeekJuly 30, 2014In “Community”Nananananananana BATMAN! — Batman’s Batcave (GC8413) — Geocache of the WeekDecember 11, 2013In “Community”
Ministers, advisers to the prime minister, cabinet secretary, chiefs of the three services, the dean of the diplomatic corps and high civil and military officials sees off prime minister Sheikh Hasina at Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, Dhaka on Thursday. Photo: BSSPrime minister Sheikh Hasina left Dhaka on Thursday morning for Germany in her maiden overseas tour in the third consecutive term in office which would take her to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as well during the return journey, reports BSS.During the six-day two-nation tour Sheikh Hasina will join an international security conference in Germany’s Munich, and attend a defence exhibition in UAE’s Abu Dhabi, where she would also hold bilateral talks with the leaders of Middle Eastern nation.A VVIP flight of Biman Bangladesh Airlines carrying the prime minister and her entourage members took off from Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport for Munich at 8:20am.Ministers, advisers to the prime minister, cabinet secretary, chiefs of the three services, the dean of the diplomatic corps and high civil and military officials were present at the airport to see her off.The flight is scheduled to reach Munich International Airport at 1.15pm Munich time (6:15pm Bangladesh time).The two-day Munich Security Conference begins in Munich on 14 February, where the she has several other engagements including meetings with leading business conglomerates and health campaigners.Sheikh Hasina will visit Abu Dhabi from 17 to 19 February to attend the 14th International Defence Exhibition (IDEX-2019) and hold bilateral talks with the UAE leaders.Hours after reaching Munich, Sheikh Hasina will attend a community reception to be organised by Bangladesh Mission in Germany at Hotel Sheraton where she would stay during the visit.She will attend the opening ceremony of the Security Conference tomorrow, deliver a statement and take part in a discussion on defence cooperation.Sheikh Hasina is also scheduled to join a roundtable titled “Health in Crisis-WHO cares” to be hosted by Centre for Strategies and International Studies and World Health Organisation (WHO).She will also hold a meeting with Noble laureate 2017 Beatrice Fihn, who is the executive director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons and with Fatou Bensouda, a top Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC).In the afternoon the prime minister will hold meetings with Joe Kaeser, president and CEO of Siemens AG and Hans Wolfgang Kunz, CEO of Veridos.She will join a dinner to be hosted jointly by Borge Brende, president of the World Economic Forum, and Jared Cohen, CEO of Jigsaw.On 16 February, the prime minister will join a panel discussion on “Climate Change as a Security Threat”.From Munich Sheikh Hasina will arrive Abu Dhabi in the morning on 17 February and attend the opening session of the International Defence Exhibition (IDEX-2019) at Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre (ADNEC).During the visit Hasina is likely to hold meeting with Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed bin Sultan Al-Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and bilateral talks with Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, vice president and prime minister of the UAE and Ruler of the Emirate of Dubai and other leaders.Sheikh Hasina will have an audience with Sheikha Fatima bint Mubarak Al Ketbi, Wife of Late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the Founder and the Inaugural president of the UAE and Ruler of Abu Dhabi at Al Bahar Palace.The prime minister will join a community event to be held at St Regis Abu Dhabi Hotel where she will stay during the visit.Sheikh Hasina is expected to return home in the morning on 20 February.
The narwhal tusk has inspired a lot of theories regarding its reason for existing (for use as a weapon, water tester or even as a means of conjuring magic) but thus far, most remain just that because of the lack of study done on the whales in their native environment. In this latest effort the research team set out to learn more about both narwhal and beluga whales, specifically their mating practices, because they would like to better understand how both whales might react to global warming.To learn more about the whales, the researchers obtained data collected between the years 1997 to 2008 by Inuits who are allowed to hunt the whales. The data consisted mainly of measurements, which included the reproductive tracts of every whale caught, and the length and girth of narwhal tusks. In studying the measurements, the team found what appears to be a very clear correlation between testes mass in narwhals, and tusk length—the more massive the testes, the longer the tusk. This, the team claims, indicates that the tusk is used by the males to attract females, or conversely, it’s a sign females use to determine which males will likely be the most fertile.The team also reports that they found no significant differences between narwhal and beluga reproductive tract length for males or females, though the beluga whale had much larger testes relative to body size than narwhals, suggesting that beluga males have more female sexual partners.Thus far the research group doesn’t appear to have found any evidence to suggest how either whale species might respond to global warming (which will mean warming sea temperatures), but they do conclude that because of the different mating strategies used by the whales, they likely will respond differently to climate change. More information: Mating ecology of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) as estimated by reproductive tract metrics, Marine Mammal Science, 2014. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12165AbstractNarwhal and beluga whales are important species to Arctic ecosystems, including subsistence hunting by Inuit, and little is understood about their mating ecology. Reproductive tract metrics vary across species in relation to mating strategy, and have been used to infer mating ecology. Reproductive tracts from beluga and narwhal were collected between 1997 and 2008 from five beluga stocks and two narwhal stocks across the Canadian Arctic. Tract length for males and females, relative testes mass for males, and tusk length for male narwhal were measured. We assessed variation relative to species, body size, stock, maturity, and season. Significant variation was found in testes mass across month and stock for beluga, and no significant difference between stock or date of harvest for narwhal. Beluga had significantly larger testes relative to body size than narwhal, suggesting they were more promiscuous than narwhal. A significant relationship was found between narwhal tusk length and testes mass, indicating the tusk may be important in female mate choice. No significant differences were found between narwhal and beluga reproductive tract length for males or females. The mating systems suggested for narwhal and belugas by our results mean the two species may respond differently to climate change. Narwhales. Credit: Glenn Williams, public domain Citation: Narwhal tusk length linked to testes mass suggesting its purpose is for attracting females (2014, September 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-narwhal-tusk-length-linked-mass.html Journal information: Marine Mammal Science (Phys.org) —A team of researchers studying narwhal and beluga whales in their native Arctic ecosystem has found what appears to be a correlation between testes mass and tusk length in narwhals—suggesting the horn-like appendage exists as a means for males to attract females. In their paper published in Marine Mammal Science, the team describes how they obtained narwhal anatomy measurements and why they believe the tusk serves mostly as a fertility draw. Explore further Unicorn-like narwhal studied for sensory use of tusks © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—A small team of researchers at California Institute of Technology has found a way to use visible blue light to induce copper-catalyzed C-N cross-couplings. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the technique and why they believe the work may lead to bigger things. Michael Greaney with the University of Manchester offers a Perspectives piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue outlining the process and explaining why the use of visible light to effect photochemical transformations has become so important in recent years. More information: Asymmetric copper-catalyzed C-N cross-couplings induced by visible light, Science 12 Feb 2016: Vol. 351, Issue 6274, pp. 681-684, DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8313 , http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6274/681AbstractDespite a well-developed and growing body of work in copper catalysis, the potential of copper to serve as a photocatalyst remains underexplored. Here we describe a photoinduced copper-catalyzed method for coupling readily available racemic tertiary alkyl chloride electrophiles with amines to generate fully substituted stereocenters with high enantioselectivity. The reaction proceeds at –40°C under excitation by a blue light-emitting diode and benefits from the use of a single, Earth-abundant transition metal acting as both the photocatalyst and the source of asymmetric induction. An enantioconvergent mechanism transforms the racemic starting material into a single product enantiomer. Citation: Visible blue light induces copper-catalyzed C-N cross-couplings (2016, February 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-visible-blue-copper-catalyzed-c-n-cross-couplings.html Superfast light pulses able to measure response time of electrons to light Journal information: Science One of the main parts of chemical research lies in discovering what happens when different chemicals come into contact with other chemicals—the reactions that occur can lead to the development of new products or a better understanding of how things work in the natural world. In recent years, chemists have begun to explore more fully the types of reactions that can occur when chemicals or substances are exposed to different kinds of light. Initially, such work focused more heavily on ultraviolet photochemistry, but as Greaney notes, such work requires specialized equipment—because of that, many chemists have begun to move their focus to using visible light to effect photochemical transformations. In this new effort, the researchers used the light from a blue LED to cause a C-N coupling to occur.The researchers were focused on a class of biologically active molecules that contain chiral (asymmetric) carbon centers—in this case nitrogen-containing carbon centers. They were looking to solve one of the problems of working with such molecules (their tendency to block or inhibit subsequent reactions), by combining base-metal catalysis, asymmetric synthesis and visible-light photoredox catalysis. Taking a cue from other research involving visible light, the team applied the light from a simple blue LED. They also noted that other experiments had involved noble metal complexes, which do the job well, but cost a lot—so they decided to go instead with copper salt. They found that the blue light was able to start the photoreduction of a substrate to form an alkyl radical via electron transfer. The result was the formation of a C-N bond.The work done by the team is another step forward in finding simpler and cheaper ways to instigate reactions that can result in products such as those used in the pharmaceutical and materials industry. © 2016 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.